Both areas are guided by artistic principals of composition, contrast, negative and positive space, and so on. This is the fuel in all forms of art. It's the motive of the artist that differs.
Graphic Designers often face the necessity of communicating a specific idea or string of ideas in crystal clarity. The very first graphic designers of civilization surely struggled with methods of communicating accurately with brushstrokes. Looking at early written languages, most languages seem to have started out in a pictograph form like the Egyptian Hieroglyphics, but over time they have been simplified in the interest of easier readability. The Latin Alphabet appearing on Trajan's column repeats certain elements (diagonal, horizontal, vertical lines, circle) so as to be predictable.
Fine art as a whole is not solely about logic and communication. In fact it's often pretty damn vague, which can leave a lot up to the the imagination. When striped of its finite meaning, an idea is often left with emotion and the freedom to suggest change. Forcing an audience to interpret art through their own ideas and views rather than be spoon-fed a preconceived idea is healthy for cultural growth. This is fine art's place in the grand scheme of things.
If the two of them were in that painting, "The School of Athens", Graphic Design would be logical Aristotle and Fine Art would be Plato with his head in the clouds.